Whistleblowing is dangerous business. Whistleblowers face grave consequences if they’re caught and, to make matters worse, the anonymity set – the set of potential whistleblowers for a given story – is often quite small. Mass surveillance regimes around the world don’t help matters either. Yet whistleblowing has been crucial in exposing corruption, rape and other crimes in recent years. In our latest research paper, CoverDrop: Blowing the Whistle Through A News App, we set out to create a system that allows whistleblowers to securely make initial contact with news organisations. Our paper has been accepted at PETS, the Privacy Enhancing Technologies Symposium.
To work out how we could help whistleblowers release sensitive information to journalists without exposing their identity, we conducted two workshops with journalists, system administrators and software engineers at leading UK-based news organisations. These discussions made it clear that a significant weak point in the whistleblowing chain is the initial contact by the source to the journalist or news organisation. Sources would often get in touch over insecure channels (e.g., email, phone or SMS) and then switch to more secure channels (e.g., Tor and Signal) later on in the conversation – but by then it may be too late.
Existing whistleblowing solutions such as SecureDrop rely on Tor for anonymity and expect a high degree of technical competence from its users. But in many cases, simply connecting to the Tor network is enough to single out the whistleblower from a small anonymity set.
CoverDrop takes a different approach. Instead of connecting to Tor, we embed the whistleblowing mechanism in the mobile news app published by respective news organisations and use the traffic generated by all users of the app as cover traffic, hiding any messages from whistleblowers who use it. We implemented CoverDrop and have shown it to be secure against a global passive network adversary that also has the ability to issue warrants on all infrastructure as well as the source and recipient devices.
We instantiated CoverDrop in the form of an Android app with the expectation that news organisations embed CoverDrop in their standard news apps. Embedding CoverDrop into a news app provides the whistleblower with deniability as well as providing a secure means of contact to all users. This should nudge potential whistleblowers away from using insecure methods of initial contact. The whistleblowing component is a modified version of Signal, augmented with dummy messages to prevent traffic analysis. We use the Secure Element on mobile devices, SGX on servers and onion encryption to reduce the ability of an attacker to gain useful knowledge even if some system components are compromised.
The primary limitation of CoverDrop is its messaging bandwidth, which must be kept low to minimise the networking cost borne by the vast majority of news app users who are not whistleblowers. CoverDrop is designed to do a critical and difficult part of whistleblowing: establishing initial contact securely. Once a low-bandwidth communication channel is established, the source and the journalist can meet in person, or use other systems to send large documents.
The full paper can be found here.
Mansoor Ahmed-Rengers, Diana A. Vasile, Daniel Hugenroth, Alastair R. Beresford, and Ross Anderson. CoverDrop: Blowing the Whistle Through A News App. Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies, 2022.