A number of UK banks are distributing hand-held card readers for authenticating customers, in the hope of stemming the soaring levels of online banking fraud. As the underlying protocol — CAP — is secret, we reverse-engineered the system and discovered a number of security vulnerabilities. Our results have been published as “Optimised to fail: Card readers for online banking”, by Saar Drimer, Steven J. Murdoch, and Ross Anderson.
In the paper, presented today at Financial Cryptography 2009, we discuss the consequences of CAP having been optimised to reduce both the costs to the bank and the amount of typing done by customers. While the principle of CAP — two factor transaction authentication — is sound, the flawed implementation in the UK puts customers at risk of fraud, or worse.
When Chip & PIN was introduced for point-of-sale, the effective liability for fraud was shifted to customers. While the banking code says that customers are not liable unless they were negligent, it is up to the bank to define negligence. In practice, the mere fact that Chip & PIN was used is considered enough. Now that Chip & PIN is used for online banking, we may see a similar reduction of consumer protection.