Unauthorized online pharmacies that sell prescription drugs without requiring a prescription have been a fixture of the web for many years. Given the questionable legality of the shops’ business models, it is not surprising that most pharmacies resort to illegal methods for promoting their wares. Most prominently, email spam has relentlessly advertised illicit pharmacies. Researchers have measured the conversion rate of such spam, finding it to be surprisingly low. Upon reflection, this makes sense, given the spam’s unsolicited and untargeted nature. A more successful approach for the pharmacies would be to target users who have expressed an interest in purchasing drugs, such as those searching the web for online pharmacies. The trouble is that dodgy pharmacy websites don’t always garner the highest PageRanks on their own merits, and so some form of black-hat search-engine optimization may be required in order to appear near the top of web search results.
Indeed, by gathering daily the top search web results for 218 drug-related queries over nine months in 2010-2011, Nektarios Leontiadis, Nicolas Christin and I have found evidence of substantial manipulation of web search results to promote unauthorized pharmacies. In particular, we find that around one-third of the collected search results were one of 7,000 infected hosts triggered to redirect to a few hundred pharmacy websites. In the pervasive search-redirection attacks, miscreants compromise high-ranking websites and dynamically redirect traffic different pharmacies based on the particular search terms issued by the consumer. The full details of the study can be found in a paper appearing this week at the 20th USENIX Security Symposium in San Francisco.
Continue reading Measuring Search-Redirection Attacks in the Illicit Online Prescription Drug Trade