The latest edition of the Banking Code, the voluntary consumer-protection standard for UK banks, was released last week. The new code claims to “give customers the most up to date information on how to protect their accounts from fraud.” This sounds like a worthy cause, but closer inspection shows customers could be worse off than they were before.
Clause 12.11 of the code deals with liability for losses:
If you act fraudulently, you will be responsible for all losses on your account. If you act without reasonable care, and this causes losses, you may be responsible for them. (This may apply, for example, if you do not follow section 12.5 or 12.9 or you do not keep to your account’s terms and conditions.)
Clauses 12.5 and 12.9 include some debatable advice about anti-virus software and clicking on links in email (more on this in a later post). While malware and phishing emails are a serious fraud threat, it is unrealistic to suggest that home users’ computers can be adequately secured to defeat attacks.
Fraud-detection algorithms are more likely to be effective, since they can examine patterns of transactions over all customers. However, these can only be deployed by the banks themselves.
Existing phishing schemes would be defeated by two-factor authentication, but UK banks have been notoriously slow at rolling out these, despite being widespread in many other European countries. Although not perfect, these defences might cause fraudsters to move to easier targets. Two-channel and transaction authentication techniques additionally give protection against man in the middle attacks.
Until the banks are made liable for fraud, they have no incentive to make a proper assessment as to the effectiveness of these protection measures. The new banking code allows the banks to further dump the cost of their omission onto customers.
When the person responsible for securing a system is not liable for breaches, the system is likely to fail. This situation of misaligned incentives is common, and here we see a further example. There might be a short-term benefit to banks of shifting liability, as they can resist introducing further security mechanisms for a while. However, in the longer term, it could be that moves like this will degrade trust in the banking system, causing everyone to suffer.
The House of Lords Science and Technology committee recognized this problem of the banking industry and recommended a statutory change (8.17) whereby banks would be held liable for electronic fraud. The new Banking Code, by allowing banks to dump yet more costs on the customers, is a step in the wrong direction.