One of the defining features of Web 2.0 is user-uploaded content, specifically photos. I believe that photo-sharing has quietly been the killer application which has driven the mass adoption of social networks. Facebook alone hosts over 40 billion photos, over 200 per user, and receives over 25 million new photos each day. Hosting such a huge number of photos is an interesting engineering challenge. The dominant paradigm which has emerged is to host the main website from one server which handles user log-in and navigation, and host the images on separate special-purpose photo servers, usually on an external content-delivery network. The advantage is that the photo server is freed from maintaining any state. It simply serves its photos to any requester who knows the photo’s URL.
This setup combines the two classic forms of enforcing file permissions, access control lists and capabilities. The main website checks each request for a photo against an ACL, it then grants a capability to view a photo in the form of an obfuscated URL which can be sent to the photo-server. We wrote earlier about how it was possible to forge Facebook’s capability-URLs and gain unauthorised access to photos. Fortunately, this has been fixed and it appears that most sites use capability-URLs with enough randomness to be unforgeable. There’s another traditional problem with capability systems though: revocation. My colleagues Jonathan Anderson, Andrew Lewis, Frank Stajano and I ran a small experiment on 16 social-networking, blogging, and photo-sharing web sites and found that most failed to remove image files from their photo servers after they were deleted from the main web site. It’s often feared that once data is uploaded into “the cloud,” it’s impossible to tell how many backup copies may exist and where, and this provides clear proof that content delivery networks are a major problem for data remanence. (more…)